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Efficient Energy Management and Energy Saving with a BESS

Views: 414     Author: China JB BATTERY      Publish Time: 03/29/2022      Origin:

Looking Inside a BESS (Battery Energy Storage System): What a BESS Is and How It Works

A BESS is an energy storage system (ESS) that captures energy from different sources, accumulates this energy, and stores it in rechargeable batteries for later use. Should the need arise, the electrochemical energy is discharged from the battery and supplied to homes, electric vehicles, industrial and commercial facilities.

A BESS is a compound system comprising hardware components along with low-level and high-level software. The main BESS parts include:

A battery system:
It contains individual battery cells that convert chemical energy into electrical energy. The cells are arranged in modules that, in their turn, form battery packs.

A battery management system (BMS):
A BMS ensures the safety of the battery system. It monitors the condition of battery cells, measures their parameters and states, such as state-of-charge (SOC) and state-of-health (SOH), and protects batteries from fires and other hazards.

An inverter or a power conversion system (PCS):
This converts direct current (DC) produced by batteries into alternating current (AC) supplied to facilities. Battery energy storage systems have bi-directional inverters that allow for both charging and discharging.

An energy management system (EMS):
This is responsible for monitoring and control of the energy flow within a battery storage system. An EMS coordinates the work of a BMS, a PCS, and other components of a BESS. By collecting and analyzing energy data, an EMS can efficiently manage the power resources of the system.

Depending on its functionality and operating conditions, a BESS can also include a range of safety systems, such as a fire control system, a smoke detector, a temperature control system, cooling, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems. The safety systems have their own monitoring and control units that provide conditions necessary for the safe operation of a BESS by monitoring its parameters and responding to emergencies.

Battery energy storage system architecture

Apart from electronics, complex BESSs rely on robust software solutions. For example, state-of-the-art systems use machine learning algorithms to optimize energy management. Estimating battery states and characteristics with high accuracy requires reliable algorithms and mathematical models built within BMS software development.

In sum, a BESS collects energy from an electricity grid or renewable power sources, such as solar and wind, and stores it using battery storage technology. Then, batteries discharge and release the energy when necessary—during peak demands, power outages, and in a variety of other applications.

BESSs can accommodate different batteries, including lithium-ion, lead-acid, nickel-cadmium batteries, and others—we’ll elaborate on them later in the article. Every battery type has certain technical specifications that designate BESS uses and affect the efficiency of battery energy storage. The principal battery characteristics embrace:

Storage capacity:
This is the amount of electric charge stored by a battery or the amount of electricity available in a BESS.

This parameter determines the amount of power supplied by a battery or the output power that a BESS can provide.

Round-trip efficiency:
This displays the ratio of energy delivered by a battery during discharge to the energy supplied to the battery during a charge cycle.

Depth of Discharge (DoD):
This shows the percentage of energy discharged from a battery relative to its total capacity.

This can be defined as the number of charge and discharge cycles of a battery or the amount of energy that a battery can supply during its lifetime (battery throughput).

This is an important characteristic that shows the battery’s compliance with safety requirements, for example, in terms of the battery chemistry.

In addition to the above battery specifications, storage battery systems have other characteristics that describe their performance. For example, response time is the time a BESS needs to move from the idle state and start working at full power. Ramp rate is the rate at which the system can increase or decrease its power output—ramp it up or down, respectively.

BESS Types and Alternatives

BESSs vary depending on the electrochemistry or battery technology they use. Let’s look at the main BESS battery types and opportunities they offer for battery storage solutions.

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