Emergency Power Supply

The uninterruptible power supply (UPS) provides emergency backup power instantaneously
when the main power source fails or if the voltage drops to an insufficient level or surges and causes an outage.

Containerized Battery Energy Storage For Emergency

Emergency power system

An emergency power system is an independent source of electrical power that supports important electrical systems on loss of normal power supply. A standby power system may include a standby batteries and other apparatus. Emergency power systems are installed to protect life and property from the consequences of loss of primary electric power supply.

They find uses in a wide variety of settings from homes to hospitals, scientific laboratories, data centers, telecommunication equipment and ships. Emergency power systems can rely on generators, deep-cycle batteries, flywheel energy storage or fuel cells, but now more by the energy storage batteries.

Operation in buildings

Mains power can be lost due to downed lines, malfunctions at a sub-station, inclement weather, planned blackouts or in extreme cases a grid-wide failure. In modern buildings, most emergency power systems have been and are still based on generators. Usually, these generators are Diesel engine driven, although smaller buildings may use a gasoline engine driven generator.

Some larger building have gas turbine. But the gas turbine takes 5 minutes (or up to 30 minutes) to produce power.

Lately, more use is being made of deep cycle batteries and other technologies such as flywheel energy storage or fuel cells. These latter systems do not produce polluting gases, thereby allowing the placement to be done within the building. Also, as a second advantage, they do not require a separate shed to be built for fuel storage.

With regular generators, an automatic transfer switch is used to connect emergency power. One side is connected to both the normal power feed and the emergency power feed; and the other side is connected to the load designated as emergency. If no electricity comes in on the normal side, the transfer switch uses a solenoid to throw a triple pole, single throw switch. This switches the feed from normal to emergency power. The loss of normal power also triggers a battery operated starter system to start the generator, similar to using a car battery to start an engine. Once the transfer switch is switched and the generator starts, the building's emergency power comes back on (after going off when normal power was lost).

Unlike emergency lights, emergency lighting is not a type of light fixture; it is a pattern of the building's normal lights that provides a path of lights to allow for safe exit, or lights up service areas such as mechanical rooms and electric rooms. Exit signs, Fire alarm systems (that are not on back up batteries) and the electric motor pumps for the fire sprinklers are almost always on emergency power. Other equipment on emergency power may include smoke isolation dampers, smoke evacuation fans, elevators, handicap doors and outlets in service areas. Hospitals use emergency power outlets to power life support systems and monitoring equipment. Some buildings may even use emergency power as part of normal operations, such as a theater using it to power show equipment because "the show must go on."

Battery For Emergency Power Supply

Electronic device protection

Computers, communication networks, and other modern electronic devices need not only power, but also a steady flow of it to continue to operate. If the source voltage drops significantly or drops out completely, these devices will fail, even if the power loss is only for a fraction of a second. Because of this, even a generator back-up does not provide protection because of the start-up time involved.

To achieve more comprehensive loss protection, extra equipment such as surge protectors, inverters, or sometimes a complete uninterruptible power supply (UPS) is used. UPS systems can be local (to one device or one power outlet) or may extend building-wide. A local UPS is a small box that fits under a desk or a telecom rack and powers a small number of devices.A building-wide UPS may take any of several different forms, depending on the application. It directly feeds a system of outlets designated as UPS feed and can power a large number of devices.

Since telephone exchanges use DC, the building's battery room is generally wired directly to the consuming equipment and floats continuously on the output of the rectifiers that normally supply DC rectified from utility power. When utility power fails, the battery carries the load without needing to switch.

Controlling the emergency power system

For a 208 VAC emergency supply system, a central battery system with automatic controls, located in the power station building, is used to avoid long electric supply wires. This central battery system consists of Li-ion battery cell units to make up a 12 or 24 VDC system as well as stand-by cells, each with its own battery charging unit. Also needed are a voltage sensing unit capable of receiving 208 VAC and an automatic system that is able to signal to and activate the emergency supply circuit in case of failure of 208 VAC station supply.