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Power Supply for EV

An pure electric vehicle battery is a battery used to power the electric vehicle motor.
These batteries are usually rechargeable batteries, and are typically lithium-ion batteries,
they are specifically designed for a high ampere-hour capacity.

Lithium-ion battery for Electric Vehicle

Electric vehicle battery

An electric vehicle battery (EVB, also known as a traction battery) is a battery used to power the electric motors of a battery electric vehicle (BEV). These batteries are usually rechargeable batteries, and are typically lithium-ion batteries. These batteries are specifically designed for a high ampere-hour (or kilowatt-hour) capacity.

Electric vehicle batteries differ from starting, lighting, and ignition (SLI) batteries as they are designed to give power over sustained periods of time and are deep-cycle batteries. Batteries for electric vehicles are characterized by their relatively high power-to-weight ratio, specific energy and energy density; smaller, lighter batteries are desirable because they reduce the weight of the vehicle and therefore improve its performance. Compared to liquid fuels, most current battery technologies have much lower specific energy, and this often impacts the maximum all-electric range of the vehicles.

Vehicle Battery History

The most common battery type in modern electric vehicles are lithium-ion and lithium polymer, because of their high energy density compared to their weight. Other types of rechargeable batteries used in electric vehicles include lead–acid ("flooded", deep-cycle, and valve regulated lead acid), nickel-cadmium, nickel–metal hydride, and, less commonly, zinc–air, and sodium nickel chloride ("zebra") batteries.[1] The amount of electricity (i.e. electric charge) stored in batteries is measured in ampere hours or in coulombs, with the total energy often measured in kilowatt-hours. Since the late 1990s, advances in lithium-ion battery technology have been driven by demands from portable electronics, laptop computers, mobile phones, and power tools. The BEV and HEV marketplace has reaped the benefits of these advances both in performance and energy density. Unlike earlier battery chemistries, notably nickel-cadmium, lithium-ion batteries can be discharged and recharged daily and at any state of charge.

Battery For Pure Electric Low-speed Vehicle Battery

Internal components

Battery pack designs for Electric Vehicles are complex and vary widely by manufacturer and specific application. However, they all incorporate a combination of several simple mechanical and electrical component systems which perform the basic required functions of the pack.

The actual battery cells can have different chemistry, physical shapes, and sizes as preferred by various pack manufacturers. Battery packs will always incorporate many discrete cells connected in series and parallel to achieve the total voltage and current requirements of the pack. Battery packs for all electric drive EVs can contain several hundred individual cells. Each cell has a nominal voltage of 3-4 volts, depending on its chemical composition.

To assist in manufacturing and assembly, the large stack of cells is typically grouped into smaller stacks called modules. Several of these modules will be placed into a single pack. Within each module the cells are welded together to complete the electrical path for current flow. Modules can also incorporate cooling mechanisms, temperature monitors, and other devices. Modules must remain within a specific temperature range for optimal performance.In most cases, modules also allow for monitoring the voltage produced by each battery cell in the stack by using a Battery Management System (BMS).

The battery cell stack has a main fuse which limits the current of the pack under a short circuit condition. A "service plug" or "service disconnect" can be removed to split the battery stack into two electrically isolated halves. With the service plug removed, the exposed main terminals of the battery present no high potential electrical danger to service technicians.

The battery pack also contains relays, or contactors, which control the distribution of the battery pack's electrical power to the output terminals. In most cases there will be a minimum of two main relays which connect the battery cell stack to the main positive and negative output terminals of the pack, which then supply high current to the electrical drive motor. Some pack designs will include alternate current paths for pre-charging the drive system through a pre-charge resistor or for powering an auxiliary bus which will also have their own associated control relays. For safety reasons these relays are all normally open.

The battery pack also contains a variety of temperature, voltage, and current sensors. Collection of data from the pack sensors and activation of the pack relays are accomplished by the pack's Battery Monitoring Unit (BMU) or Battery Management System (BMS). The BMS is also responsible for communications with the vehicle outside the battery pack.

Range parity

Driving range parity means that the electric vehicle has the same range as an average all-combustion vehicle, with batteries of specific energy greater than 1 kWh/kg.Higher range means that the electric vehicles would run more kilometers without recharge.

Cost saving

In terms of operating costs, the price of electricity to run a BEV is a small fraction of the cost of fuel for equivalent internal combustion engines, reflecting higher energy efficiency.

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